As we discussed in
Investment Banking- Why do Sellers use an Investment Banker (I)
Investment Banking- Understanding the Deal: The Pitch Process (II)
So now that the banks have pitched for the deal by showcasing their industry knowledge, negotiation and deal prowess and asset valuation, one bank is chosen to exclusively market the asset and execute the deal. The business of developing relationship and signing mandates by going to meetings, researching the industry and pitching is called origination. It is often done by the business development team in large bulge bracket investment banks like Goldman Sachs and JP Morgan. Once the deal has been mandated and a Client Agreement has been signed, the execution team takes over. In a boutique bank like Avendus or Mape, same teams often specializing in an industry handle both origination and execution.
The deal process for buying and selling are slightly different and today we will be focusing on selling an asset. A typical advisory structure.
This is the usual process of a deal
1. Preparation –Diagnostics and Consolidation of information- this is where the execution team visits the site and spends time understanding deal nuances, strategic considerations like potential valuation and transaction process once they look at all the information.
•Review The Business, Financial Results & Prospects
•Develop & Refine Financial Forecast
•Gather Financial & Legal Due Diligence Material
•Analyze Structural Considerations, Including Tax & Accounting Issues
•Review Tactical & Strategic Considerations
•Analyze Structural & Timing Considerations
• Create deal Collateral including Information Memorandum, Financial Model and Teaser
2. Planning– Establish Valuation Based On Standard Valuation Techniques
a. Review Strategic Options In Light Of Valuation & Structural Goals
b. Analyze Transaction Structure Alternatives
c. Assist In Development Of Appropriate Acquisition Contract
3. Marketing– Use deal collateral and contacts to
a. Position Company To Appeal To Specific Buyers
b. Identify & Screen Potential Buyers
c. Prepare Management Presentation
d. Develop Data Room and coordinate site visits
e. Conduct Marketing Process With Strict Time Guidelines
f. Minimize Business Disruption
4. Due Diligence and Bid Evaluation–
a. Compare & Analyze Bids & Considerations
b. Evaluate Company’s Options
c. Due Diligence by Buyers
d. Analyze Tax & Structural Impact Of Proposed Transaction
5. Negotiation- Negotiate pricing through auction rounds. There are different ways in which you sell or buy a company (See box below) but all of it involves a fair amount of negotiation and many rounds of it. A couple before the due diligence and a few after.
a. Negotiate Price
b. Negotiate terms of sale or SHA and SPA terms
c. Negotiate R & W terms
6. Documentation and closure- A primary legal process but also important for bankers as they coordinate everything. This is one of the reasons why bankers wear many hats. A salesperson, a lawyer, an accountant and sometimes even the local errand boy.
Every part of this process is delved into in detail in FMVC and Diploma in Corporate Finance, India’s leading programs in Financial Modelling and Corporate Finance.
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